Science News for the Week, Sep 17-23
September 24, 2011 - Saturday
Unfortunately, I don't have time to do an in-depth writeup this week. But there's plenty of interesting news, so I've listed some of my favorites below. Also, I won't be posting a comic on Monday. But there'll definitely be a new update by Wednesday.
• In Italy, six scientists and a public official are on trial for manslaughter for not warning the public aggressively enough of an impending earthquake that killed more than 300 people. It sounds like it should be an Onion article, right?
• The first genome of an Australian Aborigine has been sequenced. The Aborigines are direct descendants of the first modern humans to leave Africa, so there is potentially a lot we can learn about our ancestry from this work.
• The news that has been all over the Internet is a measurement of the speed of neutrinos, which seems to indicate that they can go faster than light. You can also read the paper detailing the results. I don't have time to go into too much depth, so I'll just say this is a pretty extraordinary claim. It's probably worth waiting for other experiments to confirm this result before getting too excited. Also, we have measurements from a supernova in 1987 that neutrinos and light move at the same speed. But this experiment in question did look at much higher energy neutrinos, so maybe that's something to consider as well.
• Finally, scientists have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to reconstruct people's visual experiences. How this works is that someone watches a bunch of YouTube videos while their visual cortex is being monitored. A computer can then learn what kinds of brain activity corresponds to different videos. The subject then watches a new YouTube clip, and the computer sifts through a huge database of videos and constructs an image of what the person was most likely watching. You can see an example below. Incredible!
Two New Shirts
September 20, 2011 - Tuesday
I guess I've just been in a shirt-designing mood lately. Here are two new shirts, based on these two comics. Don't forget that if you're in the US, use the code SHIPFREEUS to get free shipping on shirt orders over $50.
Science News for the Week, Sep 10-16
September 17, 2011 - Saturday
Time for science news!
• The Senate subcommittee for Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies issued a press release stating that they had produced a draft bill for the fiscal year 2012 appropriations. This is the group that initially sets the budget for NASA, among other science related agencies, so its important to see how they choose to allocate resources. The subcommittee has a budget of $52.7 billion for all the agencies under its jurisdiction for 2012, which is $626 million less than the panel received in 2011, and a whopping $5 billion below the president's 2012 request for those agencies. So it's clear there will be cuts. First, the panel voted to cut the National Science Foundation's budget by 2.4%, or $162 million. Other agencies would get large cuts as well (with the exception of maybe the Joint Polar Satellite System). But most interestingly for astronomy, the subcommittee allocated $530 million for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the successor to the Hubble Telescope, which you remember the House of Representatives wanted to cancel. The problem is that it hasn't been explained where this money would come from. The total NASA budget, which funds JWST, would be $509 million less, so they certainly aren't getting extra money to help. At this point it's probably best just to wait for the details and final decisions before getting too excited.
• Paleontologists have found a 70-million-year-old piece of amber preserving different types of feathers and protofeathers (also see this summary). Some of the feathers are thought to be from birds that lived at that time, and others are from dinosaurs and represent some of the earliest stages of feather evolution. Fossilized feathers have been found before, but those are flattened and have lost their smaller details. In contrast the specimens in amber show their full 3-dimensional structure and more detail. Some of the structures embedded in the amber don't resemble anything seen on any creature living today, so these could be some sort of protofeathers or maybe something we haven't even thought of yet.
• Astronomers announced that they have found what might be the best candidate for a Goldilocks planet yet: a planet 3.6 times as massive as the Earth, circling its star at the right distance for liquid water to exist on its surface - and thus, perhaps, to host life. The planet is merely 36 light-years from us, so basically next door. You can see an illustration and video here. This was one of more than 50 new exoplanets revealed at a news conference Monday, which have been found by the instrument HARPS (you can see more about this announcement here).
• Maybe the biggest news announced today was the discovery of a planet circling two stars locked in a tight binary pairing, just like the famous planet Tatooine from Stars Wars. There was a news conference for the announcement, which had a visual effects supervisor from Industrial Light & Magic on hand to discuss comparisons to Tatooine. Does anybody else think it's suspicious that this announcement was made the same day Star Wars is being release on Blu-ray? Not only is this a very unique system, but because we can study the eclipses between all three of the bodies, we can get unprecedented information about the mass and radius of both stars and the planet.
• With all these amazing discoveries of planets around other stars, one might forget that not so long ago some people used the lack of extrasolar planets as evidence against evolution. In 1992, William Dembski argued that "no planets outside our solar system have been observed, nor is there currently any compelling theory of planetary formation which guarantees that the observable universe is populated with planets" (the latter of which wasn't even true). Well, now there are almost 700 exoplanets and the number seems to be growing everyday. Also check out this great infograph summarizing some of the exoplanet discoveries. Thanks to John Wilkins for pointing out this article on Twitter.
Science News for the Week, Sep 3-9
September 9, 2011 - Friday
Just a couple of quick news notes this week.
• The CRESST experiment announced on Tuesday that it has a signal that could tentatively be interpreted as dark matter. This is now the third experiment to show possible direct detections of dark matter (the others being DAMA and CoGeNT), while there are two experiments which don't see dark matter and seem to rule out these other detections (XENON and CDMS). This paints a very confusing picture. The experiments use different methods of detecting the dark matter, so perhaps the dark matter is interacting differently in each case? Either way, it's exciting to see progress being made on this front.
• The "supernova of a generation" has been continuing to brighten and will be reaching its peak luminosity this weekend. It might be fun to see if any local astronomy clubs are doing special public viewings for the occasion. Also check out this helpful article on how to find and see the supernova yourself.
• Over a year ago, paleoanthropologists discovered a new hominid species that lived on Earth about 2 million years ago. This week the researchers announced their results, with five different papers in the journal Science. You can see a popular summary here (also check out the NY Times report). To make a long story short, this species shows an interesting mix of ape and hominid features including a large pelvis on the female, which is surprising since its brain is not especially large (the usual explanation for the wide pelvis of human females is to accommodate our large cranium). There is some controversy about whether this species really constitutes a direct ancestor to modern humans, but either way there is a lot to learn here. Below is a family tree for comparison. The new species, Australopithecus sediba, sits at around 2 million years ago, somewhere around Homo habilis. You can hear more about this discovery on Science Friday.
The Treachery of Bacon Shirt
September 8, 2011 - Thursday
Combine equal parts Magritte and bacon and you get my newest shirt, which is based on this recent comic. If you're in the US, use the code SHIPFREEUS to get free shipping on orders over $50. Also, following this comic there seems to be some potential interest in a "math is physics' bitch" shirt. Send me a message if that's something you'd like to see.
Flyers and College Newspapers
September 5, 2011 - Monday
Have you ever wanted to put up flyers around your campus or city to spread the word about Calamities of Nature? On the off chance that your answer is yes, here is a flyer you can download for that very thing!
Also, if you're working at a college or university newspaper, don't forget that Calamities of Nature is available for syndication. If you want to talk to me directly about opportunities for appearing in school papers, feel free to e-mail me with your questions.